[iii] World Wildlife Fund. (2018). Living Planet Report. https://wwf.panda.org/knowledge_hub/all_publications/living_planet_report_2018/
[iv] A “novel” ecosystem is one that is created and influenced by human activities. A good review article is:
Evers, C. R., et al. (2018). The ecosystem services and biodiversity of novel ecosystems: A literature review. Global Ecology and Conservation, 13, e00362. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2017.e00362
[v] See, for example, Ives et al. (2016). Cities are hotspots for threatened species. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25(1), 117-126. doi:10.1111/geb.12404
[vi] A number of technical articles can be found online by searching for urban evolution in google scholar. A very readable and comprehensive treatment of evolution cities is also to be found in Menno Schilthuizen’s 2018 book Darwin Comes to Town (NY: Picador).
[vii] The Biophilic Cities initiatives is spearheaded by professor Tim Beatley of the University of Virginia. His 2010 book Biophilic Cities (Washington: Island Press) is a good reference, as well as the Biophilic Cities website, biophiliccities.org.
[viii] Kellert, Stephen & E.O. Wilson. (1993). The Biophilia Hypothesis. Washington: Island Press.
[ix] There is a considerable literature that addresses this subject. A good review is: Brown, C., & Grant, M. (2005). Biodiversity and human health: What role for nature in healthy urban planning? Built Environment, 31(4), 326-338.
[x] The many components of which are nicely summarized in: Kellert, S. R., Heerwagen, J. H., & Mador, M. L. (eds.) (2008). Biophilic Design: The theory, science and practice of bringing buildings to life. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
[xi] Louv, R. (2008). Last Child in the Woods. New York, New York: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill.